Glossary of Terms   R S T U V W Z  A to H - J to Q 

gemstone properties

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Rhodochrosite - Mohs Hardness: 3.5-4.5 - Treatment: None - Color: Dark to medium rose pink, usually with light creme-colored banding.


Rhodonite has a distinct pink or rose red color, although material containing black veins is more popular than a uniform pink. Massive rhodonite is usually opaque to translucent and is carved or cut as cabochons or beads. Found in the Urals (Russia), Sweden, and Australia, Brazil, Mexico, the USA (New Jersey), Canada, Italy, India, Madagascar, South Africa, Japan, New Zealand, and England This stone may engender balance through strength of will. As a "karma" stone, it may also accelerate the inevitable consequences of cause and effect. Pink rhodonite helps us to monitor our thoughts, desires, words, actions, and responses, while the brownish red and flesh red stones encourage self-discipline, stability, moral courage, and faith. Healing PROPERTIES: Brings good luck, improved health. Enhances greater vision. Promotes good will, inspiration. Provides sense of direction. Helps overcome depression, loneliness. Attracts the Great Spirit. Energy:  Electric Element:  Earth and Fire Planet/Sign:  Venus/Libra
Vibrates to the number 7.

Rose Quartz - Mohs Hardness: 7 - Treatment: Dyed to enhance color - Color: Light to medium pink to nearly white

Ruby - Mohs Hardness: 9 - Treatment: Usually heat-treated - Color: Plum red

Rutilated Quartz

Rhyolite  (Astrological Sing of Sagittarius)

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- S -

Sapphire - Mohs Hardness: 9 - Vibrates to the number 2.



The name serpentine refers to a group of predominately green minerals that occur in masses of tiny inter grown crystals. The two main types used in jewelry are bowenite (translucent green or blue-green) and the rarer williamsite (translucent, oily green, veined or spotted with inclusions). Found in New Zealand, China, Afghanistan, South Africa, Italy, England, and the USA. Italian streghe or witches believe that small pebbles of serpentine afford protection from the bites of venomous creatures, mainly because the green color streaked with white resembles snakeskin. If a person has already been bitten by a snake or poisonous insect, the stone is thought to draw out the toxins. Keeps father safe. Brings happiness, success. Manifests desires and dreams. Promotes acceptance, friendliness and independence. Provides stronger faith. Effective as a temple stone in meditation, calling upon the Great Spirit. Cleanses aura. Eases swelling and pain. Benefits asthma, hepatitis. Energy:  Magnetic Element:  Earth and Water Planet/Sign:  Venus-Neptune/Pisces

Vibrates to the number 8.


Found in Arizona in copper mining areas. Combination of 3 minerals - Chrysocolla, malachite and azurite. A new mineral combination.

Shattuckite crystallizes in the form of masses and fibers. It exhibits pleochroism which ranges from light to dark blue. It is a form of plancheite.

This mineral both stimulates and combines the energies of the throat chakra and the third-eye, producing clear concise verbalization of psychic visions and the contacts with other worlds.

It can be used in the process of channeling information from the spirit world, as well as in communication between this physical world and extraterrestrial worlds. It does not facilitate the contact, but allows for precision in the communication after the contact has been accomplished.

Vibrates to the number 2.

Silver {Astrological Signs of Cancer and Aquarius)


Sodalite, whose name reflects its sodium content, is found in all shades of blue and is a major constituent of the rock lapis lazuli - so the two are easily confused. However, unlike lapis lazuli, sodalite very rarely contains brassy pyrite specks. Found in Italy, Brazil (Bahia), Canada (Ontario), India, Greenland, Russia (Urals), Namibia, and the USA (Montana & Nevada) The most important commercial source of sodalite is Bancroft in Ontario, Canada. It was discovered during a royal visit by Princess Margaret of England. For this reason, sodalite from Bancroft is sometimes called Princess Blue. Sodalite may be useful for balancing the metabolism. it is also a good shock absorber, and may be used to combat the negative effects of radioactive materials and treatments, such as X-rays, radiation, and chemotherapy. Sodalite is a record-keeper, and is easily impressed with new ideas and emotions. It is an excellent memory bank and can help you follow the track of previous incarnational experiences. Healing PROPERTIES: Keeps sister and journey safe. Attraction abilities. Protects from danger. Helps overcome despair. Facilitates ability to think rationally and derive logical conclusions. Brings mental balance, independence, good judgment, heightened perception. Enhances dreams, provides awakening. Eases path towards accomplishment. Expands consciousness. Helpful with careers and transitions. Fosters attraction, positive attitude toward others. Benefits swollen glands, insomnia, adrenal gland and intestinal worms. Energy:  Electromagnetic Element:  Air and Water Planet/Sign:  Moon/Cancer; Mercury/Gemini; Saturn-Uranus/Aquarius

Vibrates to the number 4.

Soo Chow (see Serpentine)

Heat treated serpentine

Spinel - {Elemental Astrological Signs of Sagittarius and Aries}

Many large red stones formerly thought to be rubies or red diamonds recently have been correctly identified as spinel. They are very brilliant and come in many colors including red, pink, blue, and green. They are said to relieve stress and depression and assist with mental rejuvenation.

The energy of spinel is the energy of beauty. It is known as a "stone of immortality" bringing freshness to all endeavors and initiating rejuvenation to that which is beginning to degrade.

Vibrates to the number 3

Sugilite - {also known as Royal Lavulite and Royal Azel}

Dark purple in color. Helps us attain conscious awareness, spirituality, positive thoughts and feelings as well as channeling ability. It helps our souls remain unhurt by the shocks and disappointments of the world.

It can be used to protect against the harsh realities of this world and to enable one to willingly accept being here and living now.

It can be used to eliminate hostility - it is quite difficult for one to remain hostile toward oneself; in addition, and following the same logic, it can also be used to eliminate anger, abrasiveness, jealousy, and prejudice.

It is wonderful to wear or carry - it gives one a feeling of being free - being on top of a mountain with the breeze ruffling your hair. It infuses the being with inspiration and confidence.

It is an excellent remedy for headaches; one can hold a piece of sugilite containing the black manganese in order to allow pain to be transferred to the manganese/sugilite stone. It has been used to dispel all types of discomforts and feelings of disorder.

Astrological sign of Virgo

Vibrates to the numberd 2, 3, and 7.


Swarovski Austrian Crystal

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Tiger Opal (see Jasper)

Tiger's Eye - Mohs Hardness: 7- Treatment: None - Color: Shades of honey yellow and brown

Formed from hawk's eye where the iron in inclusions of crocidolite has oxidized to a brown color, keeping the fibrous structure. The luster is silky with a wavy light-ray on fractures. Typically displays stripes, because included fibers are crooked or bent. It is sensitive to acids. Found in South Africa (where the export of raw material is forbidden), also in Australia, Burma (Myanmar), India, Namibia, and the USA (California)

Tiger's eye quartz contains the gentle grounding energy of Earth. It is stabilizing, enduring, and can help build confidence and increase one's sense of security. Tiger's Eye can help us to recognize our personal resources and use our abilities to attain our dreams because it is an excellent stone for developing and encouraging discipline and concentration, especially in children. This stone may bring abundance, prosperity, and financial independence to the wearer.

Healing PROPERTIES: Keeps children safe. Brings awareness of the needs of self and others. Helps settle disputes. Attracts good luck. Aids during periods of transition. Encourages clear perception, grounding, centering and insight. Provides calming effect. Brings greater joy. Stimulates astral travel. Contains slight masculine energy. Benefits digestive organs, spleen, colon, pancreas, and infections. Energy:  Electric Element:  Fire and Air Planet/Sign:  Sagittarius; Mercury/Virgo

Vibrates to the number 4.

Tiger Iron (Astrological Sign of Leo)

Topaz (Astrological Sign of Sagittarius)

Tourmaline - Mohs Hardness: 7-7.5 - Treatment: Usually heat-treated

Tourmaline is mined in the United States, Brazil, Australia, Mexico and Russia. It became a known gemstone in the eighteenth century.

When heated, tourmaline will develop opposing electrical charges at the opposite ends of the crystal, indicating extreme focusing power.

Tourmaline works to purify the entire body, including the auric field. It is a wonderful stress reducer, perhaps due to the sheer beauty of the stone. Worn against the skin at heart level, tourmaline conveys peace and tranquility, and helps to organize scattered thoughts and emotions.

This stone is also well known for its ability to absorb tremendous amounts of negativity, both from the wearer and from the environment.

Healing PROPERTIES: Keeps wife safe. Repels "Evil Eye." Brings abundance, good luck. Promotes generosity. Dispels fear. Helps overcome inferiority complex. Assists in dealing with emotions, despair and death. Highly electromagnetic. Strong and protective influence. Helps avoid negativity. Enhances concentration, sensitivity and understanding. Encourages education, brings greater psychic awareness, clairvoyance, higher wisdom. Effective in meditation. Attracts the Great Masters. Aids access to spiritual plane. Powerful healer. Helps balance endocrine system. Energizes body and mind. Facilitates sleep. Increases energy levels. Benefits headaches and blood circulation.

Energy:  Electromagnetic Element:  Air, Earth and Fire Planet/Sign:  Mercury/Virgo; Jupiter/Sagittarius

Vibrates to the number 2.


Tufa Casting

Tufa is a lightweight, highly refractory, natural pumice stone that is used primarily by the American Indians to make molds for casting "flat back" silver jewelry such as pendants and belt buckles. As in cuttle fish casting, only relatively simple shapes that do not have undercuts or intircate detail can be cast successfully. However, it is possible to reuse the tufa mold for up to twenty castings, whereas a cuttle fish mold can be used only once.

Turquoise - Mohs Hardness: 5-6 - Treatment: Matrix may be darkened to enhance beauty - Color: Ranges from sky blue, to blue-green, to yellow-green.

One of the first gemstones to be mined, turquoise has long been prized for its intense color, which varies from sky blue to green, depending on the quantities of iron and copper within it. Turquoise is commonly found in microcrystalline, massive form, usually as encrustations, in veins, or as nodules. It is opaque to semitranslucent, light and very fragile.

Found in Iran, Tibet, Afghanistan, Argentina, Brazil, China, Israel, Mexico, Tanzania, Chile, Australia, Turkestan, Cornwall (England), and the USA

Turquoise has been thought to warn the wearer of danger or illness by changing color.

In the thirteenth century, turquoise was the stone to wear if you didn't want to fall off a horse, a building, or a precipice, or have a house or wall fall on your head. This latter applied especially if the turquoise was set in gold. Thirteenth-century Turks often attached turquoise to the bridles of their horses as amulets to keep them from becoming ill as a result of overexertion. In medieval times, turquoise was considered to be the quintessential "horse-amulet."

During the seventeenth century, the turquoise was considered to be a man's stone; women rarely wore it.

Turquoise is also thought to be an accurate timepiece. If the stone were suspended from a thread held between the thumb and forefinger (like a pendulum) the vibrations would cause it to strike the side of a glass in such a way as to tell the correct time.

Back in the 1800's much turquoise was mined at Mount Chalchiuihtl in the Cerrillos Hills in New Mexico. The Pueblo Indians of the region greatly disapproved of this action, because to them the turquoise was (and still is) a sacred stone. In fact, a medicine man would not receive proper recognition without a turquoise in his possession. A mining disaster in the Cerrillos Hills back then buried many of the Indian miners alive, and the area remains haunted to this day.

Native Americans from New Mexico and Arizona carve turquoise into animal shapes such as frogs, birds, squirrels, bears, coyotes, and even porpoises and whales. The fetishes are usually strung together on a necklace and worn as a protective amulet. Turquoise is also a strong talisman for the hunter: a turquoise tied to a gun would ensure a swift and accurate kill.

Healing PROPERTIES: Keeps husband safe. Encourages family bonding. Promotes trust, love, kindness and innocence. Empowers artistic traits. Provides discipline, attention and understanding. Good for cleansing. Tones and strengthens entire body. Brings Master Guide, greater love. Induces enthusiasm. Stimulates tissue regeneration. Revitalizes blood, nervous system. Beneficial for circulation, bowel cramps and chest area including lungs and respiratory system.

Energy:  Magnetic Element:  Earth and Air Planet/Sign:  Venus-Neptune/Libra

Vibrates to the number 1.

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Unakite (New to the Market)

Opaque granitic rock with main parts of aggregate being quartz and feldspar as well as greenish epidote. Very compact and hard. Named after place of discovery in South Carolina, USA.

"new to the market" does not necessarily mean that this stone has not been around for a long time, but its importance for the gemstone trade has remained minor or insignificant due to its extreme rarity of occurrence in gemstone quality or because it has been poorly marketed.

Vibrates to the number 9.

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So named (Latin- variscia) after old name for Vogtland. Mostly exists as bulbous, coarse aggregates, frequently interspersed with brown matrix; is commonly cut. Healing PROPERTIES: Stimulates emotional stability. Enhances self-confidence. Balances body and mind. Benefits heart, blood.


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White Howlite

Howlite is mined in Nova Scotia and California Howlite reflects and transfers spirit energy throughout the body-earth, and cleanses the mind and emotions of negative thoughts and images. Energy:  Magnetic Element:  Earth and Water Planet/Sign:  Venus-Neptune/Pisces
Vibrates to the number 2.
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The mineral zoisite (named after the collector Zois) was first found in the Sau-Alp mountains in Karnten, Austria, in 1804. It was originally called saualpite, and gemstone quality specimens have only recently been found.

Healing PROPERTIES: Brings harmony. Attraction qualities. Enhances imagination. Increases perception. Promotes mental balance. Beneficial for alleviating migraine headaches.

Vibrates to the number 4.

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